Tall buildings made of timber, like this new multi-storey building being finished in Brisbane, are springing up faster than ever thanks to changes in the building code height limits for timber buildings.
The test fire was ignited in the living area of the apartment and progressed to flashover after about 24 minutes. Peak temperatures in the apartment reached 1,000 C and remained at or close to this level until the test was stopped after 64 minutes, having exceeded the planned termination criteria. (Source: https://www.firechief.com/2017/03/14/are-wood-frame-high-rises-a-fire-risk/)
So timber buildings burn really hot until they are put out.
“The first aspect researched in this study was the self-extinction characteristics of CLT. Self-extinction is an unavoidable starting point since it is the critical process that defines the relevance of fire resistance as an assessment methodology for structural performance…..The test allowed the threshold for selfextinction to be quantified and showed that careful detailing in the design and construction process is likely to be necessary in order for self-extinction to be predictable.” (Source https://goo.gl/iEmFw2 (shortened URL))
Timber burns and you have to put it out. It does not self-extinguish while a heat source exists.
So many problems.
Careful detailing required. Self extinction not likely except when the heat source is removed. And it burns hot.
And so far it seems like all the testing hasn’t fully considered the effect of connections. This research paper titled “Cross-laminated timber failure modes for fire conditions” (Source https://goo.gl/nvxtU2) University of Queensland only mentioned the WORD “connection” five times. I’d reckon there are a few more connections in a 8 storey building than that.
And I’m not even done yet.
The standard of workmanship (particularly in the installation of plasterboard or sheetrock) is a critical component to the necessary fire resistance.
Correct location of cavity barriers and fire stopping is important in maintaining structural integrity.
With great big facades of glass how the heck is floor to floor fire spread being addressed??? And don’t get me started on workmanship. No offence chippies, but some workers struggle to assemble double storey houses correctly not to mention the damage electricians, plumbers and air-conditioning trades do to timber buildings AFTER the frame has been passed.
And finally, in the PhD thesis submitted by Richard Lawrence Emberley in 2017:
This study is only the beginning in understanding the extremely complex physics and chemistry behind the combustion processes and force interactions of engineered timber. A prioritized list of future work is detailed outlining a path toward increased knowledge and higher confidence in designing safe timber buildings.
This PhD thesis openly admits we’ve got a long way to go before we understand combustion processes as they relate to engineered timber.
The only conclusion I can come to is this: We are not yet ready for multi-level timber buildings in Australia.
Someone is forcing our hand.
The Life of a Timber Building
A well planned timber multiple-storey building probably can be planned and built to code requirements. The connections probably can be found to not fail under fire load. The services probably can be installed without crippling the amount of exposed timber to fire sources. The exposed timber on the fire rated stair well probably can be protected by sprinklers and fire rated plasterboard.
But what happens after the builder leaves the site? A light has to be relocated. A new room has to be relocated and the old walls disassembled. A plumber needs to run a new pipe to a second sink.
The life of a timber building does not end when the developer and the builder and the certifier walk off the job with paychecks in hand.
Things happen and (i’m sorry) but our tradespeople just are not ready for these multi-storey timber buildings. Can you imagine searching Brisbane for a multi-storey qualified plumber to relocate your pipes on the fourth floor? It’s not going to happen. You’ll take Plumber A who answers the phone and charges less.
Who is Benefiting from Muli-Storey Timber Buildings
The benefit from multi-storey timber buildings starts and stops with the developer and the timber industry. One is looking to build a high-rise building as cheaply as possible. The other is trying to sell more timber.
Multi-Level Timber Buildings are Accidents Waiting to Happen
Once university studies move past testing the combustibility of big pieces of solid timber and into the complexities found in a completed building being bolted and fixed together, being modified and altered by the users and internal room fire loads from furniture being ever more combustible and then taking into account the fact that building fires take longer to extinguish than the designated 60 or 90 minutes (the Grenfell Twoer Fire burned for 60 hours (Source https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grenfell_Tower_fire) only then can the community and fire fighters that protect them start to feel any certainty about the integrity and fire safety of multi-storey timber buildings.
Until then, multi-storey timber buildings are just multi-storey fire fighting nightmares waiting to happen.
As the Human Torch would say: Flame On. or as I would say.: Flame Off.
Cornell Engineers welcomed Mr Brent Turnbull, special counsel at McKays Solicitors, this morning for this week’s Friday morning training session.
Brent Turnbull is an experienced building and construction lawyer and he took time out his day this morning to discuss litigious and regulatory matters especially as they relate to signing of Form 15s and Form 16s.
We’d like to formally thank Brent for his time and recommend him to our construction industry friends and clients as an extremely knowledgeable solicitor with significant experience in drafting construction contracts, construction litigation and acting for (and against) architects and engineers.
Thank you Brent Turnbull and thank you McKays Solicitors! We learnt a lot today.